Issue 7-8 p13-21 (2019)
Increase in frequency of disorders of women's reproductive function justifies a careful study of the underlying pathological processes. In recent years, increased attention in solving fertility problems is paid to endometrial pathology when chronic endometritis plays an important role. Current worksarefeeding an in-depth study of the etiology and pathogenesis of chronic endometritis. However, results of research pose new questions with an imaginary comprehensive study of this problem. Chronic endometritis is one of the causes of infertility and may play a role in certain complications of pregnancy and childbirth (30.3 % in patients with repeated failures of in vitro fertilization, 9.3 % with recurrent miscarriages, 9.8 % in infertility). Clinically, chronic endometritis is often asymptomatic or accompanied by nonspecific symptoms such as pelvic pain, dyspareunia, abnormal uterine bleeding, and discharges. Previously, scientists considered the uterine cavity as a sterile container. But a team of Spanish scientists sought to test for the presence of intrauterine microflora, which differs from the vaginal. As a result, the study of endometrial fluid and vaginal samples from the same patients revealed different bacterial compositions. Microflora in the intrauterine fluid was classified as Lactobacillus, and women with non-lactobacillary flora of the endometrium had a significantly lower frequency of implantation. At the initial stage of endometrial inflammation is an activation of neutrophils and macrophages, increased cytokines synthesis, extracellular matrix degradation by proteolytic enzymes. Disorders of microcirculation and sclerotic processes in the area of injury lead to the ischemia and tissue hypoxia, which activates the processes of sclerosis and angiogenesis. Chronization of the process increases the expression of chemokines and adhesion molecules, that is lead to migration of B-lymphocytes from the bloodstream and their differentiation into plasma cells, increases the activity of matrix metalloproteinases, changes local expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors. Lack of a pronounced specific clinical picture of chronic endometritis, its later detection causes impaired reproductive function. Untimely diagnosis and treatment of chronic endometritis has significant consequences in terms of the possibility of implantation of a fertilized egg in the programs of assisted reproductive technologies.
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