Results of sea level studies at RSHU release_w2buymo27fgivm5rcmkrwopuu4

by V.N. Malinin, S.M. Gordeeva, Yu.V. Mitina, O.I. Shevchuk


2020   Issue 60, p269-305


Study of sea level is being developed at RSHU in several directions: global, regional and local. The global one includes the study of the patterns of interannual fluctuations of the global sea level (GLS), identification of their genesis and development of a set of methods for its long-term forecast. Two approaches to the genesis of GLS are considered. In foreign studies, changes in GLS are determined by changes in the water mass of various cryosphere components, land water reserves and steric level fluctuations. Another approach, implemented at RSHU, is to assess contributions of various factors using the equation of the freshwater balance of the World Ocean as the sum of eustatic and steric factors. A physical-statistical method for two-decade GLS forecasting, based on delay in the GLS response to air temperature over the ocean, has been developed, as well as the GLS projections at the end of the century for climatic scenarios according to the CMIP5 project have been provided. In the regional context, the main attention is paid to identifying the genesis of the interannual variability of the Caspian Sea level with the aim of its long-term forecasting. The entire chain of cause-and-effect relationships in the North Atlantic-atmosphere-Volga basin-Caspian level system is discussed. It has been established that, as a result of the intensification of cyclonic activity in the North Atlantic, especially in the Norwegian Sea, caused by the processes of large-scale interaction between the ocean and the atmosphere, there is an increase in evaporation and in the zonal transfer of water vapour to Europe and then to the Volga basin. Therefore, more precipitation falls in the runoff-forming zone of the basin, the annual runoff of the Volga and the level of the Caspian Sea increasing. The reverse is observed with weakening of cyclonic activity in the North Atlantic. In view of this, the level of the Caspian Sea is an integral indicator of largescale moisture exchange in the ocean-atmosphere-land system. The article discusses the features of interannual sea level fluctuations in Kronstadt since 1836. A simple two-parameter model for forecasting sea level by the end of the 21st century is proposed for major climate scenarios, the predictors being the GSL and the North Atlantic Oscillation. According to the most realistic forecast, the level in Kronstadt may rise to 34-59 cm (Baltic system) by the end of the century, while according to the "pessimistic" one — to 80-90 cm (Baltic system). The estimates of the extreme storm surge at which the level rise north of the Gorskaya can reach 600 cm (Baltic system) are given. The effect of flooding from storm surges is especially strong near Sestroretsk. The total area of possible flooding of the Kurortny district at a 4-m high surge wave exceeds 1260 hectares, all the beaches being completely lost. The trajectories of flood cyclones and their role for periods of climate warming and cooling are considered
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