In developing countries, both opportunistic infections and chronic diseases account a high HIV associated mortality and morbidity. Chronic kidney diseases (CKD) associated with HIV infection has got increased attention in sub-Saharan Africa as a result of the high HIV prevalence and due to the late diagnosis and initiation of HAART. Thus, this study was conducted to assess CKD and associated factors among HIV patients on HARRT in Northwest Ethiopia.
A hospital-based cross-sectional study with a secondary data review was conducted from February 01 to April 30, 2017, at the University of Gondar Referral Hospital, Northwest Ethiopia. The study participants were selected using a systematic random sampling technique. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire by trained nurses. Venous blood and urine specimen was collected for serum creatinine and urine protein determination respectively. Glomerular filtration rate was estimated using the CKD–EPI estimator. Data were entered into SPSS version 20 for analysis. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regression was employed and p-value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.
A total of 336 HIV patients on HARRT participated in the study. The mean (SD) age of the participants was 39.7 (± 9.7) years. The study participants were on HAART with an average of 7.5 (± 3) years. Before ART initiation, the majority of patients had WHO clinical stage II and III, 251 (74.7%), CD4 + T cell count < 200 cells/mm<jats:sup>3</jats:sup>, 221 (65.8%).The overall prevalence of CKD was 16.1%. About 27 (8.0%), 16 (4.8%), 11 (3.3%) of the participants had stage 1 and stage 2 CKD and chronic renal failure (stage 3a-5) respectively. With multivariate logistic regression analysis being male (AOR = 2.05 (1.03–4.09), p = 0.04, occupation merchant (AOR = 2.91(1.00-8.48),p = 0.049)and viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mm<jats:sup>3</jats:sup> (AOR = 3.1 (1.38-7.00), P < 0.01) were significantly associated with CKD.
The prevalence of CKD among HIV patients on HARRT is high. Being male, merchant and viral load ≥ 1000 copies/mm<jats:sup>3</jats:sup> were associated factors of CKD. Patients should be regularly monitored and screened for early diagnosis and management of CKD. Those patients with high viral load and male patients should be closely followed.
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