Tuberculosis (TB) and HIV have been closely linked since the emergence of AIDS. There is a complex relationship between infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infection that results in a synergistic increase in their prevalence, morbidity and mortality. HIV-associated TB contributes substantially to the burden of TB-associated morbidity and mortality. Of the estimated 33.4 million people living with HIV in 2008, nearly 30% were estimated to have latent or active TB infection conversely. So with an estimated 1.42 million people having active TB when they died, of these 30% also had HIV infection. In the same year there were an estimated 8.7 million new cases of active TB worldwide, of which 1.1 (13%) million are estimated to have been among people living with HIV.
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