2023 Volume 64, p132-141
Purpose: To investigate the incidence and clinical course of acute endophthalmitis after idiopathic epiretinal membrane (iERM) surgery employing microincision vitrectomy (MIVS).Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of eyes with acute endophthalmitis developing after iERM surgery via 23- or 25-gauge MIVS from 2011 to 2021. The incidence, culture-positive rate (and responsible bacteria), final visual acuity (VA), and factors affecting poor visual outcomes were assessed.Results: Acute endophthalmitis developed in 20 of the 12,921 eyes (0.15%) after MIVS. Of these, 14 of 3,180 eyes treated via iERM (0.44%, one per 227 procedures) developed endophthalmitis; the incidence ratio (iERM versus non-iERM) was 7.1 (<i>p</i> < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.6-22.7). At least one sclerotomy remained unsutured in all eyes after iERM surgery. Thirteen eyes (92.9%) were given intravitreal antibiotic injections after emergency vitrectomy, and one eye was treated with intravitreal antibiotic injection alone. <i>Staphylococcus epidermidis</i> was cultured from four eyes (28.6%); three strains were methicillin-resistant. All final VAs were not better than the initial VAs; the average VA decreased from 20/42 to 20/259 (<i>p</i> < 0.001). Six eyes (42.9%) attained legal blindness status (final VA < 20/200); Macular invasion was a unique risk factor for such blindness (<i>p</i> = 0.020, odds ratio = 35.0, 95% CI = 1.7-703.0).Conclusions: Acute endophthalmitis developing after iERM surgery with MIVS was more common than such endophthalmitis after other retinal surgery. Approximately 40% of the former patients became legally blind, and the risk was higher in eyes with macular involvement of endophthalmitis.
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