Clean air actions in China, PM2.5 exposure, and household medical expenditures: A quasi-experimental study release_rev_2efd3d80-feb4-4f0d-aab0-031824ced1e8

by Tao Xue, Tong Zhu, Wei Peng, Tianjia Guan, Shiqiu Zhang, Yixuan Zheng, Guannan Geng, Qiang Zhang

Published in PLoS Medicine by Public Library of Science (PLoS).

Volume 18, Issue 1 e1003480 (2021)

Abstract

<jats:sec id="sec001"> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> Exposure to air pollution, a leading contributor to the global burden of disease, can cause economic losses. Driven by clean air policies, the air quality in China, one of the most polluted countries, has improved rapidly since 2013. This has enabled a unique, quasi-experiment to assess the economic impact of air pollution empirically. </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec002"> <jats:title>Methods and findings</jats:title> Using a series of nation-scale longitudinal surveys in 2011, 2013, and 2015, we first examined the questionnaire-based medical expenditure changes before and after the policy intervention for air pollution. Using a state-of-the-art estimator of the historical concentration of particulate matters with diameter less than 2.5 μm (particulate matter (PM)<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub>), we further quantified the association between household medical expenditure and PM<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub> using mixed-effect models of the repeated measurements from 26,511 households in 126 cities. Regression models suggest a robust linear association between reduced PM<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub> and saved medical expenditures, since the association did not vary significantly across models with different covariate adjustments, subregions, or subpopulations. Each 10 μg/m<jats:sup>3</jats:sup> reduction in PM<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub> was associated with a saving of 251.6 (95% CI: 30.8, 472.3; <jats:italic>p</jats:italic>-value = 0.026) Yuan in per capita annual medical expenditure. However, due to limitations in data quality (e.g., self-reported expenditures), and imperfect control for unmeasured confounders or impact from concurrent healthcare reform in China, the causality underlying our findings should be further confirmed or refuted. </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec003"> <jats:title>Conclusion</jats:title> In this study, we observed that compared with the PM<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub> reduction in 2013, the PM<jats:sub>2.5</jats:sub> reduction in 2017 was associated with a saving of 552 (95% CI: 68, 1036) Yuan / (person × year), or approximately 736 billion Yuan (equivalent to 111 billion US dollar) per year nationally, which is equivalent to approximately 1% of the national gross domestic product of China. </jats:sec>
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Date   2021-01-06
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