Chondroitin Sulfate in USA Dietary Supplements in Comparison to Pharma Grade Products: Analytical Fingerprint and Potential Anti-Inflammatory Effect on Human Osteoartritic Chondrocytes and Synoviocytes release_p5nxs2p7m5b5vdjnsfjav4scwi

by Antonietta Stellavato, Odile Francesca Restaino, Valentina Vassallo, Elisabetta Cassese, Rosario Finamore, Carlo Ruosi, Chiara SCHIRALDI

Published in Pharmaceutics by MDPI AG.

2021   Volume 13, Issue 5, p737

Abstract

The biological activity of chondroitin sulfate (CS) and glucosamine (GlcN) food supplements (FS), sold in USA against osteoarthritis, might depend on the effective CS and GlcN contents and on the CS structural characteristics. In this paper three USA FS were compared to two pharmaceutical products (Ph). Analyses performed by HPAE-PAD, by HPCE and by SEC-TDA revealed that the CS and GlcN titers were up to −68.8% lower than the contents declared on the labels and that CS of mixed animal origin and variable molecular weights was present together with undesired keratan sulfate. Simulated gastric and intestinal digestions were performed in vitro to evaluate the real CS amount that may reach the gut as biopolymer. Chondrocytes and synoviocytes primary cells derived from human pathological joints were used to assess: cell viability, modulation of the NF-κB, quantification of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP-2), hyaluronate synthase enzyme (HAS-1), pentraxin (PTX-3) and the secreted IL-6 and IL-8 to assess inflammation. Of the three FS tested only one (US FS1) enhanced chondrocytes viability, while all of them supported synoviocytes growth. Although US FS1 proved to be less effective than Ph as it reduced NF-kB, it could not down-regulate COMP-2; HAS-1 was up-regulated but with a lower efficacy. Inflammatory cytokines were markedly reduced by Ph while a slight decrease was only found for US-FS1.
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