Remission, relapse, and risk of major cardiovascular events after metabolic surgery in persons with hypertension: A Swedish nationwide registry-based cohort study release_ocf7qdvncrbqhixl7gxmlyqx3y

by Erik Stenberg, Richard Marsk, Magnus Sundbom, Johan Ottosson, Tomas Jernberg, Ingmar Näslund, Erik Näslund

Published in PLoS Medicine by Public Library of Science (PLoS).

2021   Volume 18, Issue 11, e1003817

Abstract

<jats:sec id="sec001"> <jats:title>Background</jats:title> Several studies have shown that metabolic surgery is associated with remission of diabetes and hypertension. In terms of diabetes, factors such as duration, insulin use, weight loss, and age have been shown to contribute to the likelihood of remission. Such factors have not been determined for hypertension. The aim of this study was to evaluate factors associated with the remission and relapse of hypertension after metabolic surgery, as well as the risk for major adverse cardiovascular event (MACE) and mortality in patients with and without remission. </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec002"> <jats:title>Methods and findings</jats:title> All adults who underwent metabolic surgery between January 2007 and June 2016 were identified in the nationwide Scandinavian Obesity Surgery Registry (SOReg). Through cross-linkage with the Swedish Prescribed Drug Register, Patient Register, and Statistics Sweden, individual data on prescriptions, inpatient and outpatient diagnoses, and mortality were retrieved. Of the 15,984 patients with pharmacologically treated hypertension, 6,286 (39.3%) were in remission at 2 years. High weight loss and male sex were associated with higher chance of remission, while duration, number of antihypertensive drugs, age, body mass index (BMI), cardiovascular disease, and dyslipidemia were associated with lower chance. After adjustment for age, sex, BMI, comorbidities, and education, the cumulative probabilities of MACEs (2.8% versus 5.7%, adjusted odds ratio (OR) 0.60, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.47 to 0.77, <jats:italic>p</jats:italic> &lt; 0.001) and all-cause mortality (4.0% versus 8.0%, adjusted OR 0.71, 95% CI 0.57 to 0.88, <jats:italic>p</jats:italic> = 0.002) were lower for patients being in remission at 2 years compared with patients not in remission, despite relapse of hypertension in 2,089 patients (cumulative probability 56.3%) during 10-year follow-up. The main limitations of the study were missing information on nonpharmacological treatment for hypertension and the observational study design. </jats:sec> <jats:sec id="sec003"> <jats:title>Conclusions</jats:title> In this study, we observed an association between high postoperative weight loss and male sex with better chance of remission, while we observed a lower chance of remission depending on disease severity and presence of other metabolic comorbidities. Patients who achieved remission had a halved risk of MACE and death compared with those who did not. The results suggest that in patients with severe obesity and hypertension, metabolic surgery should not be delayed. </jats:sec>
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