tRNAs and Aminoacyl-tRNA Synthetases in Human Disease: an introduction to the JBC Reviews thematic series release_jglr4cit6nfrxgbzlzlxjzxtoa

by Karin

Published in Journal of Biological Chemistry by American Society for Biochemistry & Molecular Biology (ASBMB).

2019   Volume 294, Issue 14, jbc.REV119.007721

Abstract

Aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases (ARSs) catalyze the attachment of specific amino acids to cognate tRNAs for use in protein synthesis. This historical function of ARSs and tRNAs is fairly well understood. However, ARSs and tRNAs also perform noncanonical functions that are continuing to be unveiled at a rapid pace. The expanded functions of these essential molecules of life range from roles in retroviral replication to stimulation of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) activity; DNA repair, splicing, and transcriptional and translational regulation; and other aspects of cellular homeostasis. Furthermore, mutations in tRNAs and synthetases are known to drive human maladies, such as the neurodegenerative disorder Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease along with other central nervous system dysfunctions and cancer. This series of reviews focuses on the diseases that result from natural variations in human cytoplasmic tRNAs, as well as from mutations in mitochondrial tRNAs and ARSs. Ultimately, the exciting work in this rapidly emerging area may lead to new therapies for microbial and parasitic infections, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases.
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Type  article-journal
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Date   2019-02-24
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