The therapeutic monoclonal antibody (t-mAb) daratumumab, used to treat multiple myeloma (MM) patients, interferes with routine, electrophoretic based M-protein diagnostics. Electrophoretic response assessment becomes increasingly difficult when multiple t-mAbs are combined for use in a single patient. This is the first study to address the analytical challenges of M-protein monitoring when multiple t-mAbs are combined.
In this proof-of-principle study we evaluate two different methods to monitor M-protein responses in three MM patients, who receive both daratumumab and nivolumab. The double hydrashift assay aims to resolve t-mAb interference on immunofixation. The MS-MRD (mass spectrometry minimal residual disease) assay measures clonotypic peptides to quantitate both M-protein and t-mAb concentrations.
After exposure to daratumumab and nivolumab, both t-mAbs become visible on immunofixation electrophoresis (IFE) as two IgG-kappa bands that migrate close to each other at the cathodal end of the γ-region. In case the M-protein co-migrates with these t-mAbs, the observed interference was completely abolished with the double IFE hydrashift assay. In all three patients the MS-MRD assay was also able to distinguish the M-protein from the t-mAbs. Additional advantage of the MS-MRD assay is that this multiplex assay is more sensitive and allows quantitative M-protein-, daratumumab- and nivolumab-monitoring.
Daratumumab and nivolumab interfere with electrophoretic M-protein diagnostics. However, the M-protein can be distinguished from both t-mAbs by use of a double hydrashift assay. The MS-MRD assay provides an alternative method that allows sensitive and simultaneous quantitative monitoring of both the M-protein and t-mAbs.
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