Calanoids of the family Diaptomidae are the most widespread copepods in the lentic inland waters of the Palearctic region. In Italy, studies on the family date back to the end of 19th century. Since then, several papers contributed to increasing the knowledge on their presence, distribution, and ecological preferences. Nevertheless, new records for the area and the discovery of putative new species stress that the current knowledge on these inland water crustaceans is still far from being exhaustive. This paper presents an updated and annotated checklist and bibliography of the Diaptomidae of the Italian peninsula and surrounding islands, including Corsica and the Maltese islands, compiled through a critical review of the existing literature and carrying out further field research. The doubtful records reported in the literature are discussed and clarified. The updated checklist includes 30 diaptomid species and subspecies; among them, an alien species and three putative new species pending formal description are reported. About 20% of the observed species are endemic or subendemic to the study area. The faunal provinces ascribed to the Mediterranean limnofaunistic region host the highest species richness and contribute to the checklist with rare species and unique occurrences. The high species richness observed in the Mediterranean area supports the hypothesis of a long-lasting persistence of an ancient and peculiar copepod fauna.
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