Tourism impacts of poverty alleviation on ethnic households: Comparing difference between Cham, Khmer, and Chinese ethnic households in An Giang province, Viet nam
Le Thi To Quyen, TRAN HUU TUAN
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to compare the effects of tourism on poverty alleviation in minority households and to propose tourism development solutions to effectively reduce poverty for ethnic groups. This study surveyed ethnic households in An Giang Province, Vietnam, where the majority of Khmer, Cham, and Chinese households live in crowded conditions, and tourism was identified as an alternative means of poverty alleviation for the households.
Theoretical framework: Different ethnic groups, according to Kyle et al. (2019), have different perspectives on tourism in general and ethnic neighborhood tourism. Academic research on poverty alleviation in tourism has advanced from concept to development model (Jin et al., 2019), influencing factors, and implementation path (Jin et al, 2019; Guo, 2020). Even if no jobs are created, investment in tourism infrastructure can connect villagers to the larger economy, which will benefit local agriculture. (Lor et all 2019, Hall, 2007; Li et al., 2016; Oraboune, 2008). Aside from focusing solely on household income and consumption, Sen (1999) emphasized the importance of addressing the problem of capability deprivations in any effort to reduce poverty. For this reason, household capacity must be taken into consideration when assessing poverty reduction among different households. According to Duong & Dung (2018) and Ngoc (2018), the factors influencing livelihoods include objective and subjective household factors, while Nui (2019) indicated that the choice of household livelihood strategy differs depending on the household's economic level. Farmers will face a wide range of influencing factors when implementing livelihood strategies, and as a result, the livelihood outcomes experienced by each farmer will differ, Tuan and Dung (2015). Based on the literature review and the situation in the study area, it is evident that comparative studies on the level of poverty reduction among ethnic minority households have few research documents; therefore, the implementation of this study is insufficient.
Design/methodology/approach: The research was done in Tinh Bien, Tri Ton, An Phu, Tan Chau, and Chau Doc, An Giang. This was chosen as the study site because ethnic households exist there, affecting tourism development. Fieldwork was done in 2021 and 2022. The second phase allowed for data verification and gap filling. In the first phase, the sampling technique evolved as the author became more familiar with case studies and could assess the number of persons to approach given time restrictions. Questionnaires were utilized to acquire data. The 390 samples of questionnaires were from Tinh Bien, Tri Ton, An Phu, Tan Chau, and Chau Doc by employing Taro Yamane's algorithm to determine the number of households to survey. Post hoc one-way ANOVA was conducted to compare the poverty reduction impact of tourism on three groups of households by assessment of the different demographic characteristics of the respondent.
Findings: The findings reveal that the poverty reduction impact of tourism on ethnic households differs before and after tourism implementation; ethnic households feel the poverty reduction impacts more strongly after tourism development. When comparing the impact of poverty reduction on economics, access to essential social services, livelihoods, and socio-cultural factors, Khmer, Chinese, and Cham households have significantly lower levels of poverty. Meanwhile, tourism has a greater impact on poverty alleviation in Khmer households than it does in Cham households, and Chinese groups wield more power than Khmer groups. When comparing the Human, Social, Natural, Financial, and Institutional assets of three ethnic minority households to understand the causes of different poverty alleviation, the Chinese have the most of all five assets, followed by the Khmer, and finally the Cham.
Research, Practical & Social implications: Tourism has provided an additional source of income for ethnic minority households in Vietnam, thereby reducing poverty, according to the study's findings. Despite this, the level of poverty reduction among ethnic minority households is contingent on the household's livelihood assets, which include human capital, social capital, natural capital, financial capital, and institutional capital. Due to a lack of education, professional tourism skills, and access to information technology, the human capital of ethnic minority households is limited. To enhance the efficacy of tourism development and alleviate poverty among ethnic minority households, it is necessary to improve means of subsistence.
Originality/value: The results indicate that the number of publications is growing, and the management and business area is the one that contributes the most, with the countries that produce in co-authorship also providing the most publications.
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