1992 Volume 66, Issue 8, p4909-18
To determine the sequences of the oncogenes src (encoded by Rous sarcoma virus [RSV]) and ros (encoded by UR2) that are responsible for causing different transformation phenotypes and to correlate those sequences with differences in substrate recognition, we constructed recombinants of the two transforming protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) and studied their biological and biochemical properties. A recombinant with a 5' end from src and a 3' end from ros, called SRC x ROS, transformed chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) to a spindle shape morphology, mimicking that of UR2. Neither of the two reverse constructs, ROS x SRC I and ROS x SRC II, could transform CEF. However, a transforming variant of ROS x SRC II appeared during passages of the transfected cells and was called ROS x SRC (R). ROS x SRC (R) contains a 16-amino-acid deletion that includes the 3' half of the transmembrane domain of ros. Unlike RSV, ROS x SRC (R) also transformed CEF to an elongated shape similar to that of UR2. We conclude that distinct phenotypic changes of RSV- and UR2-infected cells do not depend solely on the kinase domains of their oncogenes. We next examined cellular proteins phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinases of UR2, RSV, and their recombinants as well as a number of other avian sarcoma viruses including Fujinami sarcoma virus Y73, and some ros-derived variants. Our results indicate that the UR2-encoded receptorlike PTK P68gag-ros and its derivatives have a very restricted substrate specificity in comparison with the nonreceptor PTKs encoded by the rest of the avian sarcoma viruses. Data from ros and src recombinants indicate that sequences both inside and outside the catalytic domains of ros and src exert a significant effect on the substrate specificity of the two recombinant proteins. Phosphorylation of most of the proteins in the 100- to 200-kDa range correlated with the presence of the 5' src domain, including the SH2 region, but not with the kinase domain in the recombinants. This corroborates the conclusion given above that the kinase domain of src or ros per se is not sufficient to dictate the transforming morphology of these two oncogenes. High-level tyrosyl phosphorylation of most of the prominent substrates of src is not sufficient to cause a round-shape transformation morphology.
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