Serum 1,3-beta-D-glucan as a noninvasive test to predict histologic activity in patients with inflammatory bowel disease release_5rnyhwyvg5f3vbtwwqhk36mtn4

by Katia Farias E Silva, Hayandra F Nanini, Cynthia Machado Cascabulho, Siane L B Rosas, Patricia T Santana, Antonio José de V Carneiro, Elias Anaissie, Marcio Nucci, Heitor Siffert Pereira de Souza

Published in World Journal of Gastroenterology.

2021   Volume 27, Issue 9, p866-885


1,3-beta-D-glucan (BG) is a ubiquitous cell wall component of gut micro-organisms. We hypothesized that the serum levels of BG could reflect active intestinal inflammation in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. To determine whether the serum BG concentrations correlate with intestinal inflammation. A prospective observational study was performed in a tertiary referral center, from 2016 to 2019, in which serum BG was determined in 115 patients with Crohn's disease (CD), 51 with ulcerative colitis (UC), and 82 controls using a photometric detection kit. Inflammatory activity was determined by ileocolonoscopy, histopathology, magnetic resonance enterography, and biomarkers, including fecal calprotectin (FC), C-reactive protein, and a panel of cytokines. The ability of BG to detect active vs inactive disease was assessed using the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve. In subgroup analysis, serial BG was used to assess the response to therapeutic interventions. The serum BG levels were higher in CD patients than in controls (P = 0.0001). The BG levels paralleled the endoscopic activity in CD patients and histologic activity and combined endoscopic and histologic activity in both CD and UC patients. The area under the curve (AUC) in receiver operating characteristic analysis to predict endoscopic activity was 0.694 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.60-0.79; P = 0.001] in CD, and 0.662 (95%CI: 0.51-0.81; P = 0.066) in UC patients. The AUC in receiver operating characteristic analysis to predict histologic activity was 0.860 (95%CI: 0.77-0.95; P < 0.001) in CD, and 0.786 (95%CI: 0.57-0.99; P = 0.015) in UC patients. The cut-off values of BG for both endoscopic and histologic activity were 60 µg/mL in CD, and 40 µg/mL in UC patients. Performance analysis showed that the results based on BG of 40 and 60 µg/mL were more specific for predicting endoscopic activity (71.8% and 87.2% for CD; and 87.5% and 87.5% for UC, respectively) than FC (53.3% and 66.7% for CD; and 20% and 80% for UC, respectively); and also histologic activity (60.5% and 76.3% for CD; and 90.0% and 95.0% for UC, respectively) than FC (41.7% and 50.0% for CD; and 25% and 50% for UC, respectively). Regarding the clinical, endoscopic, and histologic activities, the BG levels were reduced following therapeutic intervention in patients with CD (P < 0.0001) and UC (P = 0.003). Compared with endoscopic (AUC: 0.693; P = 0.002) and histologic (AUC: 0.868; P < 0.001) activity, no significant correlation was found between serum BG and transmural healing based on magnetic resonance enterography (AUC: 0.576; P = 0.192). Positive correlations were detected between BG and IL-17 in the CD (r: 0.737; P = 0.001) and the UC group (r: 0.574; P = 0.005), and between BG and interferon-gamma in the CD group (r: 0.597; P = 0.015). Serum BG may represent an important novel noninvasive approach for detecting mucosal inflammation and therapeutically monitoring inflammatory bowel diseases, particularly in CD.
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