Comparative Study of the Diagnostic Tests for Typhoid release_52mdpwje5fdvveh734y4e632xu

by D Souza, Parameshwaran

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Abstract

Introduction: Typhoid is an endemic disease in India. It is a serious systemic illness caused by Salmonella enterica serotype typhi. Accurate diagnosis is crucial to the management of the disease. However typhoid can be confused with other febrile diseases. Hence diagnosis requires the use of specific tests, which either detects the presence of antibodies to Salmonella typhi (Widal and Rapid IgM tests) or which isolate the organism from the blood (Blood culture or clot culture). Early accurate diagnosis will ensure that the right treatment regimen can be started. Aims & Objective: The aim of the study was to compare the above diagnostic tests for typhoid in terms of (a) Sensitivity, (b) specificity, (c) time required to obtain results and (d) cost. Materials & Methods: 43 suspected cases of Typhoid were included in this study. The samples were processed for blot culture, WIDAL and Rapid IgM as per standard methods. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the Widal test were found to be100%, 96%, 95% and 100% respectively, while for the rapid IgM test these values were found to be 74%, 96%, 93% and 82% respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the clot culture were found to be 37%, 92%, 78% and 65% respectively. Discussion: According to this study, the Widal test was found to be the most sensitive and specific test among the three diagnostic tests. Conclusion: The rapid IgM test was almost similar to the Widal in terms of accuracy statistics, but had a faster turnaround time. The clot culture was less accurate, expensive and time consuming.
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