Private Military and Security Companies (PMSCs) in the Modern International Processes release_4mfmdqjhhfgzjhwnd2h36lar54

by M. A. Nebolsina

Published in International Analytics by Moscow State Institute of International Relations.

2022   Volume 13, p107-133


The period of rapid growth and development of the phenomenon, that is presently characterized as private military and security companies (PMSCs), coincided with the two processes of modern history of international relations: the end of the Cold War and the beginning of the U.S. Global War on Terror (GWOT) in Afghanistan. At the same time state attitude towards violence and transformation of warfare has been changing as well. Two diff erent approaches to the history of the private security market' rise unveil the fact, that, in one way or another, the originators of the private security services were associated with the defense industry and armed forces. Non-state security actors look back on a history, that stretches to the middle and the second half of the 20th century – the period of national liberation movements across the world. Meanwhile, the 90-s of the 20th century marked the fast growth in the number of PMSCs and in the development and enlargement of the private security services' market. Its growth is ongoing to date with gaining more new states that are interested in utilizing its capacity as an instrument of politics. Against the backdrop of the world political processes the private security market experienced technological growth and enhancement. Together with that, both the normative regulation and the approaches of the international community to the phenomenon of private military and security companies have been evolving and changing. Despite its functionality, fl exibility and technological advantages, the market of private security can challenge human rights as well as bare responsibility for the facts of corruption and improper fulfi llment of contractual obligations. Still the episodes of revealed grieve violations rarely reach courts, with infrequent cases of sentencing the perpetrators to punishment. These and other problems occurring in the private security industry require close attention by the states and international community, which has been making eff orts for elaboration of the applicable normative mechanisms to regulate private military and security activity for more than fi fteen years.
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