Bolwig Organ and Its Role in the Photoperiodic Response of Sarcophaga similis Larvae release_45upv2qy4jazpjlla5icfq2tke

by Kazuné Hirata, Sakiko Shiga

Published in Insects by MDPI AG.

2023   Volume 14, Issue 2, p115


Flesh-fly Sarcophaga similis larvae exhibit a photoperiodic response, in which short days induce pupal diapause for seasonal adaptation. Although the spectral sensitivity of photoperiodic photoreception is known, the photoreceptor organ remains unclear. We morphologically identified the Bolwig organ, a larval-photoreceptor identified in several other fly species, and examined the effects of its removal on the photoperiodic response in S. similis. Backfill-staining and embryonic-lethal-abnormal-vision (ELAV) immunohistochemical-staining identified ~34 and 38 cells, respectively, in a spherical body at the ocular depression of the cephalopharyngeal skeleton, suggesting that the spherical body is the Bolwig organ in S. similis. Forward-fill and immunohistochemistry revealed that Bolwig-organ neurons terminate in the vicinity of the dendritic fibres of pigment-dispersing factor-immunoreactive and potential circadian-clock neurons in the brain. After surgical removal of the Bolwig-organ regions, diapause incidence was not significantly different between short and long days, and was similar to that in the insects with an intact organ, under constant darkness. However, diapause incidence was not significantly different between the control and Bolwig-organ-removed insects for each photoperiod. These results suggest that the Bolwig organ contributes partially to photoperiodic photoreception, and that other photoreceptors may also be involved.
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